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As of [update] , the average life expectancy in Russia was Deaths mostly occur from preventable causes, including alcohol poisoning, smoking, traffic accidents and violent crime.
Since , the year school education has been introduced. Education in state-owned secondary schools is free. University level education is free, with exceptions.
A substantial share of students is enrolled for full pay many state institutions started to open commercial positions in the last years.
In the s, in order to create higher education and research institutions of comparable scale in Russian regions, the government launched a program of establishing "federal universities", mostly by merging existing large regional universities and research institutes and providing them with a special funding.
There are over different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples in Russia. Handicraft , like Dymkovo toy , khokhloma , gzhel and palekh miniature represent an important aspect of Russian folk culture.
Ethnic Russian clothes include kaftan , kosovorotka and ushanka for men, sarafan and kokoshnik for women, with lapti and valenki as common shoes.
The clothes of Cossacks from Southern Russia include burka and papaha , which they share with the peoples of the Northern Caucasus. Russian cuisine widely uses fish, poultry, mushrooms, berries, and honey.
Crops of rye , wheat, barley , and millet provide the ingredients for various breads, pancakes and cereals, as well as for kvass , beer and vodka drinks.
Black bread is rather popular in Russia, compared to the rest of the world. Flavourful soups and stews include shchi , borsch , ukha , solyanka and okroshka.
Smetana a heavy sour cream is often added to soups and salads. Pirozhki , blini and syrniki are native types of pancakes.
Chicken Kiev , pelmeni and shashlyk are popular meat dishes, the last two being of Tatar and Caucasus origin respectively.
Other meat dishes include stuffed cabbage rolls golubtsy usually filled with meat. Russia's large number of ethnic groups have distinctive traditions regarding folk music.
Typical ethnic Russian musical instruments are gusli , balalaika , zhaleika , and garmoshka. Folk music had a significant influence on Russian classical composers, and in modern times it is a source of inspiration for a number of popular folk bands , like Melnitsa.
Russian folk songs , as well as patriotic Soviet songs , constitute the bulk of the repertoire of the world-renowned Red Army choir and other popular ensembles.
Russians have many traditions , including the washing in banya , a hot steam bath somewhat similar to sauna.
Many Russian fairy tales and epic bylinas were adapted for animation films, or for feature movies by the prominent directors like Aleksandr Ptushko Ilya Muromets , Sadko and Aleksandr Rou Morozko , Vasilisa the Beautiful.
Russian poets, including Pyotr Yershov and Leonid Filatov , made a number of well-known poetical interpretations of the classical fairy tales, and in some cases, like that of Alexander Pushkin , also created fully original fairy tale poems of great popularity.
Since the Christianization of Kievan Rus' for several ages Russian architecture was influenced predominantly by the Byzantine architecture.
Apart from fortifications kremlins , the main stone buildings of ancient Rus' were Orthodox churches with their many domes , often gilded or brightly painted.
Aristotle Fioravanti and other Italian architects brought Renaissance trends into Russia since the late 15th century, while the 16th century saw the development of unique tent-like churches culminating in Saint Basil's Cathedral.
After the reforms of Peter the Great the change of architectural styles in Russia generally followed that in the Western Europe. The 18th-century taste for rococo architecture led to the ornate works of Bartolomeo Rastrelli and his followers.
The second half of the 19th century was dominated by the Neo-Byzantine and Russian Revival styles. Prevalent styles of the 20th century were the Art Nouveau , Constructivism , and the Stalin Empire style.
With the change in values imposed by communist ideology , the tradition of preservation was broken. Independent preservation societies, even those that defended only secular landmarks such as Moscow-based OIRU were disbanded by the end of the s.
A new anti-religious campaign, launched in , coincided with collectivization of peasants; destruction of churches in the cities peaked around A number of churches were demolished, including the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow.
In Moscow alone losses of — are estimated at over notable buildings including to listed buildings, out of a total inventory of 3, — some disappeared completely, others were replaced with concrete replicas.
In , a new Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev , condemned the "excesses" of the former academic architecture,  and the late Soviet era was dominated by plain functionalism in architecture.
This helped somewhat to resolve the housing problem, but created a large quantity of buildings of low architectural quality, much in contrast with the previous bright styles.
In Nikita Khrushchev launched his anti-religious campaign. By over 10 thousand churches out of 20 thousand were shut down mostly in rural areas and many were demolished.
Of 58 monasteries and convents operating in , only sixteen remained by ; of Moscow's fifty churches operating in , thirty were closed and six demolished.
Early Russian painting is represented in icons and vibrant frescos , the two genres inherited from Byzantium. As Moscow rose to power, Theophanes the Greek , Dionisius and Andrei Rublev became vital names associated with a distinctly Russian art.
The Russian Academy of Arts was created in  and gave Russian artists an international role and status. Ivan Argunov , Dmitry Levitzky , Vladimir Borovikovsky and other 18th-century academicians mostly focused on portrait painting.
In the early 19th century, when neoclassicism and romantism flourished, mythological and Biblical themes inspired many prominent paintings, notably by Karl Briullov and Alexander Ivanov.
In the midth century the Peredvizhniki Wanderers group of artists broke with the Academy and initiated a school of art liberated from academic restrictions.
Some artists focused on depicting dramatic moments in Russian history, while others turned to social criticism , showing the conditions of the poor and caricaturing authority; critical realism flourished under the reign of Alexander II.
The turn of the 20th century saw the rise of symbolist painting, represented by Mikhail Vrubel , Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin , and Nicholas Roerich.
The Russian avant-garde was a large, influential wave of modernist art that flourished in Russia from approximately to The term covers many separate, but inextricably related art movements that occurred at the time, namely neo-primitivism , suprematism , constructivism , rayonism , and Russian Futurism.
Since the s the revolutionary ideas of the avant-garde clashed with the newly emerged conservative direction of socialist realism.
Soviet art produced works that were furiously patriotic and anti-fascist during and after the Great Patriotic War. Multiple war memorials, marked by a great restrained solemnity, were built throughout the country.
Soviet artists often combined innovation with socialist realism, notably the sculptors Vera Mukhina , Yevgeny Vuchetich and Ernst Neizvestny.
Music in 19th-century Russia was defined by the tension between classical composer Mikhail Glinka along with other members of The Mighty Handful , who embraced Russian national identity and added religious and folk elements to their compositions, and the Russian Musical Society led by composers Anton and Nikolay Rubinsteins , which was musically conservative.
The later tradition of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky , one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era , was continued into the 20th century by Sergei Rachmaninoff.
Russian conservatories have turned out generations of famous soloists. During the early 20th century, Russian ballet dancers Anna Pavlova and Vaslav Nijinsky rose to fame, and impresario Sergei Diaghilev and his Ballets Russes ' travels abroad profoundly influenced the development of dance worldwide.
Modern Russian rock music takes its roots both in the Western rock and roll and heavy metal , and in traditions of the Russian bards of the Soviet era, such as Vladimir Vysotsky and Bulat Okudzhava.
Russian pop music developed from what was known in the Soviet times as estrada into full-fledged industry, with some performers gaining wide international recognition, such as t.
In the 18th century, during the era of Russian Enlightenment , the development of Russian literature was boosted by the works of Mikhail Lomonosov and Denis Fonvizin.
By the early 19th century a modern national tradition had emerged, producing some of the greatest writers in Russian history.
This period, known also as the Golden Age of Russian Poetry , began with Alexander Pushkin , who is considered the founder of the modern Russian literary language and often described as the "Russian Shakespeare".
Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoyevsky have been described by literary critics as the greatest novelists of all time. By the s, the age of the great novelists was over, and short fiction and poetry became the dominant genres.
The next several decades became known as the Silver Age of Russian Poetry , when the previously dominant literary realism was replaced by symbolism.
Russian philosophy blossomed in the 19th century, when it was defined initially by the opposition of Westernizers , who advocated Western political and economical models, and Slavophiles , who insisted on developing Russia as a unique civilization.
The latter group includes Nikolai Danilevsky and Konstantin Leontiev , the founders of eurasianism. In its further development Russian philosophy was always marked by a deep connection to literature and interest in creativity, society, politics and nationalism; Russian cosmism and religious philosophy were other major areas.
Notable philosophers of the late 19th and the early 20th centuries include Vladimir Solovyev , Sergei Bulgakov , and Vladimir Vernadsky.
Following the Russian Revolution of many prominent writers and philosophers left the country, including Bunin, Vladimir Nabokov and Nikolay Berdyayev , while a new generation of talented authors joined together in an effort to create a distinctive working-class culture appropriate for the new Soviet state.
In the s censorship over literature was tightened in line with the policy of socialist realism. In the late s restrictions on literature were eased, and by the s and s, writers were increasingly ignoring official guidelines.
Russian and later Soviet cinema was a hotbed of invention in the period immediately following , resulting in world-renowned films such as The Battleship Potemkin by Sergei Eisenstein.
Dziga Vertov , whose kino-glaz "film-eye" theory—that the camera, like the human eye, is best used to explore real life—had a huge impact on the development of documentary film making and cinema realism.
The subsequent state policy of socialist realism somewhat limited creativity; however, many Soviet films in this style were artistically successful, including Chapaev , The Cranes Are Flying , and Ballad of a Soldier.
The s and s saw a greater variety of artistic styles in Soviet cinema. Eldar Ryazanov 's and Leonid Gaidai 's comedies of that time were immensely popular, with many of the catch phrases still in use today.
In —68 Sergey Bondarchuk directed an Oscar -winning film adaptation of Leo Tolstoy's epic War and Peace , which was the most expensive film made in the Soviet Union.
Russian animation dates back to late Russian Empire times. During the Soviet era, Soyuzmultfilm studio was the largest animation producer.
Soviet animators developed a great variety of pioneering techniques and aesthetic styles, with prominent directors including Ivan Ivanov-Vano , Fyodor Khitruk and Aleksandr Tatarsky.
The late s and s were a period of crisis in Russian cinema and animation. Although Russian filmmakers became free to express themselves, state subsidies were drastically reduced, resulting in fewer films produced.
The early years of the 21st century have brought increased viewership and subsequent prosperity to the industry on the back of the economic revival.
Production levels are already higher than in Britain and Germany. The traditions of Soviet animation were developed recently by such directors as Aleksandr Petrov and studios like Melnitsa Animation.
While there were few stations or channels in the Soviet time, in the past two decades many new state and privately owned radio stations and TV channels have appeared.
Censorship and Media freedom in Russia has always been a main theme of Russian media. Soviet and later Russian athletes have always been in the top four for the number of gold medals collected at the Summer Olympics.
Soviet gymnasts, track-and-field athletes, weightlifters, wrestlers, boxers, fencers, shooters, cross country skiers, biathletes, speed skaters and figure skaters were consistently among the best in the world, along with Soviet basketball, handball, volleyball and ice hockey players.
Although ice hockey was only introduced during the Soviet era, the Soviet Union national team managed to win gold at almost all the Olympics and World Championships they contested.
It is ranked the top hockey league in Europe as of [update] ,  and the second-best in the world.
KHL is on the 4th place by attendance in Europe. Bandy , also known as Russian hockey , is another traditionally popular ice sport.
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia has continuously been one of the most successful teams, winning many world championships.
Association football is one of the most popular sports in modern Russia. The Soviet national team became the first European Champions by winning Euro In and , the Soviet Union won gold at the Olympic football tournament.
The Russian national football team reached the semi-finals of Euro , losing only to the eventual champions Spain.
In , the Russian national basketball team won the European Basketball Championship. Larisa Latynina , who currently holds the record for the most gold Olympic medals won by a woman, established the USSR as the dominant force in gymnastics for many years.
Figure skating is another popular sport in Russia, especially pair skating and ice dancing. With the exception of a Soviet or Russian pair has won gold at every Winter Olympics since Since the end of the Soviet era, tennis has grown in popularity and Russia has produced a number of famous players, including Maria Sharapova.
In martial arts, Russia produced the sport Sambo and renowned fighters, like Fedor Emelianenko. Chess is a widely popular pastime in Russia; from , Russian grandmasters have held the world chess championship almost continuously.
The Winter Olympics were held in Sochi in the south of Russia. In the McLaren Report found evidence of widespread state-sponsored doping and an institutional conspiracy to cover up Russian competitors' positive drug tests.
Formula One is also becoming increasingly popular in Russia. There had only been two Russian Grands Prix in and , but the Russian Grand Prix returned as part of the Formula One season in , as part of a six-year deal.
Russia has the most Olympic medals stripped for doping violations 51 , the most of any country, four times the number of the runner-up, and more than a third of the global total, and athletes caught doping at the Olympics , also the most of any country.
From to , more than a thousand Russian competitors in various sports, including summer, winter, and Paralympic sports, benefited from a state-sponsored cover-up,      with no indication that the program has ceased since then.
This was the first football World Cup ever held in Eastern Europe , and the first held in Europe since Russia will also host games of the Euro There are seven public holidays in Russia ,  except those always celebrated on Sunday.
Orthodox Christmas falls on January 7, because the Russian Orthodox Church still follows the Julian calendar , and all Orthodox holidays are 13 days after Western ones.
Two other major Christian holidays are Easter and Trinity Sunday. Victory Day is the second most popular holiday in Russia; it commemorates the victory over Nazism in the Great Patriotic War.
A huge military parade , hosted by the President of Russia , is annually organised in Moscow on Red Square.
Similar parades take place in all major Russian cities and cities with the status Hero city or City of Military Glory.
State symbols of Russia include the Byzantine double-headed eagle , combined with St. George of Moscow in the Russian coat of arms. The Russian flag dates from the late Tsardom of Russia period and has been widely used since the time of the Russian Empire.
The Russian anthem shares its music with the Soviet Anthem , though not the lyrics. The imperial motto God is with us and the Soviet motto Proletarians of all countries, unite!
The hammer and sickle and the full Soviet coat of arms are still widely seen in Russian cities as a part of old architectural decorations.
The Soviet Red Stars are also encountered, often on military equipment and war memorials. The Red Banner continues to be honored, especially the Banner of Victory of Cheburashka is a mascot of the Russian national Olympic team.
Alexander Nevsky , St. Sergius of Radonezh and St. Seraphim of Sarov are Russia's patron saints. Chamomile is the national flower , while birch is the national tree.
The Russian bear is an animal symbol and a national personification of Russia, though this image has a Western origin and Russians themselves have accepted it only fairly recently.
The native Russian national personification is Mother Russia. Tourism in Russia has seen rapid growth since the late Soviet period, first domestic tourism and then international tourism, fueled by the rich cultural heritage and great natural variety of the country.
Major tourist routes in Russia include a journey around the Golden Ring of ancient cities, cruises on the big rivers like the Volga , and long journeys on the famous Trans-Siberian Railway.
In , Russia was visited by The most visited destinations in Russia are Moscow and Saint Petersburg, the current and former capitals of the country.
Moscow displays Soviet architecture at its best, along with modern skyscrapers , while St Petersburg, nicknamed Venice of the North , boasts of its classical architecture, many rivers, canals and bridges.
The city has registered a brand The Third Capital of Russia , though a number of other major cities compete for this status, including Novosibirsk , Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod.
The warm subtropical Black Sea coast of Russia is the site for a number of popular sea resorts, like Sochi , the follow-up host of the Winter Olympics.
The mountains of the Northern Caucasus contain popular ski resorts such as Dombay. This unique lake, the oldest and deepest in the world, has crystal-clear waters and is surrounded by taiga -covered mountains.
Other popular natural destinations include Kamchatka with its volcanoes and geysers, Karelia with its lakes and granite rocks, the snowy Altai Mountains , and the wild steppes of Tuva.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Russia disambiguation.
Not to be confused with Prussia. Location of Russia green Crimean peninsula light green [note 1]. Rus' people and Rus' name. Grand Duchy of Moscow.
Soviet Union and History of the Soviet Union. Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev. Foreign relations of Russia. List of Russian explorers.
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Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records , Science and technology in Russia , List of Russian scientists , and List of Russian inventors.
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August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Ethnic groups in Russia. Russian language , Languages of Russia , and List of endangered languages in Russia.
Religion in Russia and Consecration of Russia. Russian traditions , Russian jokes , Russian fairy tales , and Russian cuisine.
Russian architecture and List of Russian architects. Russian literature , Russian philosophy , Russian poets , Russian playwrights , Russian novelists , and Russian science fiction and fantasy.
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Russia is not a superpower and won't be one for the foreseeable future. But Russia is a great power. It was one, it is one and it will continue to be one.
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State Council, Republic of Crimea. Retrieved October 14, The body of the Russian Spaniel tends to be longer than that of the English Cocker however, and the breed has only one line rather than being split into separate specific show and field lines of the same breed.
Bred primarily as hunting dogs, their goal is to find the bird, send it into the air and then to retrieve it on command after the hunter has shot the quarry.
As with all long-eared spaniels, Russian Spaniels require checks to prevent ear infections. There are no other breed-specific health issues currently known.
It is an energetic, free-spirited breed. The Russian Spaniel is the youngest of the Russian gundogs. The first recorded spaniel in Russia was a black Cocker Spaniel owned by hunting enthusiast Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich towards the end of the 19th century.
Because of its noble connections, spaniels of various breeds were imported to St. Some were used for hunting, but the smaller spaniels were not of much use in Russian bird hunting due to the weather and terrain conditions.
It was at the beginning of the 20th century that selective breeding began for longer legged spaniels; specifically importing Springer Spaniels to create a rather mixed Russian Spaniel.
By the late s there were a variety of spaniels in Moscow, Leningrad and Sverdlovsk that did not fit any specific spaniel breed standard, but were not yet standardised into the modern Russian Spaniel.
The popularity of the breed in Russia increased after the early s, with Moscow dog shows since that time annually including between and Russian Spaniels, which qualifies the breed as one of the most popular, along with the Irish Setter.
In , the Russian Spaniel Club was set up in the United States to increase the knowledge of the breed outside Russia and to enable owners to register their dogs.
In order to become recognised fully by the American Kennel Club, they must first compete in a Miscellaneous Class. The requirements to compete in that class are to demonstrate a following by having a minimum of active members in a national breed club, a population of to dogs, with third generation pedigrees and for all dogs in those pedigrees to be of the same breed, a distribution across twenty or more states, and the breed standard must be reviewed and approved by the AKC.
Typical stays in that class are between one and three years, and the national club of the breed must have held seminars, shows and judges workshops prior to being fully recognised.
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